CFD model | RIAM-COMPACT | WindSim |

Turbulence model | Standard Smagorinsky LES | RNG k-ε RANS |

Atmospheric stratification (Atmospheric stability) | Neutral atmosphere | |

Coriolis force | Not considered | |

Surface roughness | Not considered (Smooth surface) | Roughness length: 0.001 |

Ground surface boundary condition | Non-slip condition (Three wind velocity components at the ground surface are zero.) | Wall function |

Shape function of the isolated hill z (r) | 0.5h × {1 + cos(πr/a)}, r = (x | |

Height of the isolated hill h | 100 (m) | |

Reynolds number Re (=U | 5 × 10 | 5 × 10 |

Time step Δt | 10 10 | - |

Computational domain size | 13h (i) × 9h (j) × 8h (k) for Re = 5 × 10 | 13h (i) × 9h (j) × 8h (k) |

19h (i) × 18h (j) × 8h (k) for Re = 1 × 10 | ||

Number of computational grid points | 325 (i) × 226 (j) × 37 (k) (Approx. 2.7 million points) for Re = 5 × 10 | 325 (i) × 226 (j) × 37 (k) (Approx. 2.7 million points) |

436 (i) × 325 (j) × 101 (k) (Approx. 14.3 million points) for Re = 1 × 10 | ||

Streamwise (x) grid spacing (Δx) | 0.04 × h for Re = 5 × 10 (0.035 - 0.5) × h for Re = 1 × 10 | 0.04 × h |

Spanwise (y) grid spacing (Δy) | ||

Vertical (z) grid spacing (Δz) | (0.05 - 0.40) × h for Re = 5 × 10 (0.000004 - 0.6) × h for Re = 1 × 10 | (0.05 - 0.40) × h |