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Religion is replacing the family as an important means of identity.


Butler, M. A., & Harper, J. M. (1994). The divine triangle: God in the marital system of religious couples. Family Process, 33, 277-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1994.00277.x

Religion has a positive impact on negative conduct such as corruption.


Bhalla, S. (2009). The Middle Class Kingdoms of India and China. Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC.

The rise of the middle class propels national economies.


Ul-Haque, Nadeem, and Ratna Sahay (1996): Do Government Wage Cuts Close Budget Deficits? Costs of

Corruption. International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, 43:4, 754-778.

An increase in wages alone does not reduce corruption in the public sector.


Bond, P. (2006). “Persistent court corruption.” Economic

Journal 118, 1333-1353.


Larger court penalties necessitate higher corruption; Paying court officials wages sufficiently above the market-clearing rate can eliminate the

high corruption equilibrium but not corruption.


Chêne, M. (2009). “Low salaries, the culture of per diems and

corruption”, U4 Expert Answer.


Low government wages in developing countries result in a decline of public sector efficiency and productivity and create incentives and opportunities for corruption, brain drain, and misuse of public resources.


Department for International Development (DFID). 2012.

Impact assessment of the Zimbabwe Health Worker

Retention Scheme.


Corruption in the public service erodes resources forservice improvement and development.


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American Development Bank: Washington, DC.


Corruption is a critical obstacle to social development, well-functioning democratic institutions, and economic progress in developing countries’ public sector.

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Higher-than market clearing wages alone is insufficient to deter corruption in the public sector.