Secondary metabolite

Name of test




Dragendorff’s test

Spot a drop of extract on a small piece of pre-coated TLC plate. Spray the plate with Dragendorff’s reagent.

Orange spot


Kellar–Kiliani test

Add 2 mL filtrate with 1 mL of glacial acetic acid, 1 mL ferric chloride and 1 mL concentrated sulphuric acid

Green-blue coloration of solution


Braemer’s test

10% alcoholic ferric chloride will be added to 2 - 3 mL of methanolic extract (1:1)

Dark blue or greenish grey coloration of the solution


Salkowski test −10%

5 mL extract was added with 2 mL of chloroform and 3 mL of concentrated sulphuric acid

Reddish brown colour of interface


Liebermann-Burchardt test

To 1 mL of methanolic extract, add 1 mL of chloroform, 2 - 3 mL of acetic anhydride, 1 to 2 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid.

Dark green coloration

Reducing sugar

Fehling test Frothing

Add 25 mL of diluted sulphuric acid to 5 mL of water extract in a test tube and boil for 15 mins. Then cool it and neutralize with 10% sodium hydroxide to pH 7 and 5 mL of Fehling solution.

Brick red precipitate


Kellar-Shinoda test

To 2 - 3 mL of methanolic extract, add a piece of magnesium ribbon and 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid

Pink red or red coloration of the solution