Principle: Compliance with environmental legislation and best practices

Barriers: Proof of legal compliance of farms is hampered by the informality of most operations, the producers have a perception of the state inoperability in the environmental regulation considering it onerous, farms need to bear high compliance costs in order to qualify for the socio-environmental certification process.

Facilitators: most interviewees recognize environmental legislation: the Forest Code, environmental licensing rules, the Phytosanitary Legislation and the Legislation on the use of agrochemicals, contracting legal advice to ensure legal compliance of farms, service of reverse logistics, adequacy of properties through investment in infrastructure, and legal compliance

Principle: Responsible working conditions

Barriers: Outsourced workers ? high turnover, qualification/training costs, control of the supply of individual safety equipment by outsourced companies.

Facilitators: Compliance with labor legislation, collective bargaining agreements with the consent of a working class representative (FETAEMA - Union of agricultural workers of the state of Maranhão).

Principle: Community Relations

Barriers: Low regularity in communication between farms and local communities in the surrounding area,

Facilitators: Lack of conflict between certified farms and local communities, hiring of workers in the region to carry out farm activities, development of programs for the benefit of surrounding communities, such as: child education, family health, community gardens, training in agricultural practices (“field days”), disposal of equipment to prepare and harvest community agricultural fields, sharing equipment for the maintenance of bridges and roads.

Principle: Agricultural Best Practices

Barriers: Incomplete documentation of the application of pesticides, interviewee’s claim “the size of the property makes it difficult to implement the application plan according to the agronomic prescription and control by order of service - SAP system (packaging according to legislation)”, biological control of pests practiced by a few enterprises (allegations of “high operating cost” and “lack of trained personnel to carry out integrated pest management”), and the use of transgenic seeds is a widespread practice in the prevention of new diseases.

Facilitators: agricultural management based on the use of no-till systems, mapping of soil types for soil quality and erosion control, application of preservation practices (terrace, crop rotation and recovery of degraded soils), and replacement of native vegetation when recommended by the environmental license.