Kit Name



Target Genes





Infection Diagnostic (I.D.I.) Inc

Nasal Swabs & Isolated Colonies

orfX sequence and a sequence of SCCmec near the integration site

48 h

1) Only for nasal swabs and culture isolates.

2) US FDA approved.


Real MRSA and Real MRCONS multiplex real time PCR assay kit

M and D, Wonju, Republic of Korea

Culture isolates and Blood culture

16S rRNA, nuc and mecA

4 h

1) Wang et al reported false negative results due to the presence of PCR inhibitors or polymicrobial infections in direct blood samples

2) Expensive


BacLite Rapid MRSA Test

3M Company

Nasal swabs

Adenylate Kinase activity

5 h

1) This company claimed that swabs are confirmed negative in 5 h and positives the next day

2) It uses Bioluminescence combined, a sensitivity 94.6% and specificity 99%.

2) Evaluated only in nasal swabs and inguinal swabs.

3) Johnson et al. reported false positives due to the presence of MRCON and a sensitivity of 90.4% and specificity of 95%.


HyplexStaphyloResist PCR Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay

BAG, Lich, Germany

Nasal, Throat, Perineum and wound Swabs

mecA, Coagulase gene and nuc

6 h

1) Coagulase gene polymorphism has been reported.

2) False positives were reported

3) Only for swabs.


REBA Sepsis ?ID Test PCR Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay


Blood Culture


mecA, vanA and vanB

4 h

1) This kit distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi using pan-probes and antibiotic resistance genes. As well as identifies MRSA and VRE. As claimed by Optiparm.

2) Used as Diagnostic tool as well as for research for detection of several pathogens

3) Park SD reportedthat no specific probes for extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases for the detection of antibiotic-resistant GNB.

4) No IVD certification

5) Detects only in blood culture bottles

6) Wang HY reported of false negatives.

[40] [41]

Xpert MRSA assay

Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA

Lower-respiratory- tract specimens, Nasal swabs and blood cultures

MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the SCCmec

2 h

1) Cepheid claimed that this kit can’t be used for all types of specimens.

2) Oh A-C et al. reported false negatives and false positives

3) US FDA approved


Hain GenoQuick (GQM) methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assay

Hain Life science

Nasal and groin swabs

MRSA-specific chromosomal sequences

2.5 h

1) Only Nasal and groin swabs can be processed.

2) IVD approved.


Light Cycler MRSA advanced test


Nasal Swabs

orfX sequence and a sequence of SCCmec near the integration site

3 h

1) mecA gene is present in many other Coagulase negative Staphylococcal species, thereby causing false identification.

2) W C Yam et al. evaluated this kit and reported 83.3% sensitivity and 99% specificity.

3) Detects only in nasal swabs which is a major drawback.

4) IVD and US FDA Approved

[44] [45]