Social, historical and cultural background.

First hand experiences, observational learning, cultural context, language and symbols.


Focusing on the future, consideration for future consequences, low tolerance for pain, high dependency on reward.

Past actions/Present choices

Demand elasticity, temporal discount, information on risks, bias towards naive decision: benefits today vs. abstention cost today, smart bias: benefits tomorrow vs. abstention cost today.


Brain structure and chemical neurotransmisors, brain structure for pleasure and reward mechanisms, incentive-sensation of addiction, oppose process: states of euphoria and depression, both before and after consumption.

Underlying processes

Psychological processes outside the individual’s introspection, that automatize addictive behavior. They emerge from outside the individual’s conscience.