Ambalavanan et al., 2013


In vivo tests

Will exposure to TiO2 lead to lung inflammation and impairment of lung development?

C57BL/6mice, 4 day old pups

Intranasal instillation for distal pulmonary delivery, and exposed to TiO2 Anatase 8 - 10 nm NP.

Single dose of TiO2 nanoparticles caused cell inflammation. Multiple doses lead to increased inflammation and inhibit lung development.

Belade et al., 2012


In vitro test method

Is there a difference in the cellular uptake of 3 different manufactured Nanoparticles (MNP) and TiO2 in Human lung epithelial and fibroblast cells?

Human 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells and MRC5 fibroblasts

Transmission microscope was used to assess the cellular uptake of the 3 Manufactured Nanoparticles.

The 3 Nanoparticles was observed accumulated in the vesicles of cytosolic compartment and were absent from Mitochondria and nuclei. MNPs uptake in cells is a common phenomenon