Methodological Choice


Valuation methodology

LEV-infinite rotations, NPV-one rotation, AE


Tree, stand, hectare, village, region, national

Site and species selection


Yield models

Dynamic/static, mathematical modelling

Tree spacing/stand density

Varies with species, country & management objectives


Yes/No Intensity, type and interval

Timing of harvesting

Rotation of MSY, financial/economic biomass

Market optimisation

Log optimisation

Whole tree price size curve, assortment, end-product prices, wood energy, carbon biomass

Income streams

Subsidies, timber revenues, carbon credits, bioenergy

Timber prices

Historic price series, current assortment prices

Cost streams

Establishment, management, harvesting, contractors, own labour, farm overhead costs

Discount rate

High, low,

Indexation of costs/prices

CPI-general or component specific

Agricultural opportunity cost

Gross margin/ha

Carbon sequestration

Live wood, soil carbon, HWP


Combination of model outputs, custom or generic programmes, Excel, SPSS, Stata