Inclusion Criteria

Exclusion Criteria


All patients undergoing clean surgery in the operating room

Non-clean surgery, procedures not performed in the operating room, simulation based without actual surgery


Use of disposable face mask

Type of face mask not specified


No face mask

No restriction of non-scrubbed staff from comparator group


Wound infection as defined by guidelines for wound classification

Follow up time not specified

Types of study

All research published in peer reviewed journals, RCT, full text

English language

From 2001-2016

All studies published before 2001, non-English studies, non RCT, patient based questionnaire,

Duplicate studies

No full text