Hayajnah (2011)

To identify motivating behaviors of role model clinical instructors that enhance student learning


Qualitative design.

Educators’ characteristics and teacher-student relationship

The presence of the clinical instructors at the clinical setting add a sense of relaxation and support for them. Students appreciated the clinical instructors’ effort at the clinical settings.

Papp, Markkanen, & von Bonsdorff (2003)

To describe the clinical environment in relation to clinical learning experiences in Taiwan


Qualitative design (unstructured interview).

Clinical placement effect.

Well-established, goal-oriented teaching process would produce cooperative, rapport relationship between teacher and student, and successful learning outcomes.

Schrodt et al. (2008)

They assessed how teacher evaluation (power use) can predict the learner empowerment


Structural equation modeling.

Educators’ characteristics.

Teacher-student relationship.

The results showed that the most type of power used is the referent power. Referent power used when the teacher shows the commitment to the class and build rapport relationship with students to improve the students’ perception toward the class and enhance their participation in the class activities.

Learning environment

Al Nasseri, et al. (2014)

The literature review identified impact of the student-teacher relationship on the students’ learning process


Literature review.

Clinical instructors’ capabilities.

Teacher-student relationship.

Adequate preceptors’ capabilities to improve the theory-practice gap, leads to a better clinical learning environment.

Adequate teacher-student relationship with respect has a great impact to decrease students’ stress level, give support for students to accomplish their goals, increase their motivation to learn, and improve their achievement

Kenndy (2016)

To explore the factors that enhance or inhibit empowerment development during the clinical placement.


Qualitative design.

Clinical placement.

Organizational characteristics.

Clinical learning environmental culture such as language, values, beliefs, attitudes, uniform, rules, and practices provide more understanding to nursing culture.

The importance of organizational culture is to facilitate nurses, educators, and students’ access to resources at the organization to be empowered.

Ledbetter & Finn (2013)

To investigate the influence of technology use in the classroom


Correlation design.

Teaching methods.

Organizational characteristics.

Using technology in teaching through online communication with the teacher out of class, which reflect positively on instruction learning outcomes.

Polices supported the use of technology moderately in the classroom associated strongly with moderate to high -level intrapersonal empowerment students’ level.

Murphy, et al. (2012)

To find out major obstacles they may face during clinical learning experiences


A survey.

Clinical placement.

Organizational characteristics.

The clinical placement with high independence in performing nursing skills, and staff cooperation to facilitate learning opportunities improve their satisfaction level at that place.

When they were practicing nursing skills with the ward’s staff, and hands-on-skills improve their performance during the clinical training

Peterson, et al. (2014)

To assess the impact of the organizational characteristics on students’ empowerment level


A survey.

Learners’ characteristics.

The students who show an adequate level of empowerment had a high sense of community, good feelings of being valued, and experienced diversity of faculty.