Study design

Main factors

Main results

Intrapersonal empowerment

Ahn & Choi (2015)

To assess the factors affecting the empowerment level of undergraduate nursing students in Korea during clinical training


A cross-sectional design.

Learners’ characteristics.

Clinical placement characteristics.

Nursing students’ knowledge in decision making in the clinical setting, students’ self-esteem, being valued as a learner, and clinical placement influence the students’ empowerment level

Bradbury‐Jones, et al. (2010)

To explore nursing students’ empowerment in clinical practice

Thirteen first year nursing student till third year.

Qualitative Longitudinal design.

Learners’ characteristics.

The results showed that the internal level of knowledge and confidence of the students are the most common factors that may affect their empowerment level

Houser & Frymier (2009)

To investigate the learner and teacher characteristics in the classroom that may affect the learners’ empowerment.


Descriptive design.

Educators’ characteristics.

Learners’ characteristics.

The teacher clarity and convenient communication with student enhance the sense of learner empowerment.

The student motivation to learn and his individual characteristic as learning orientation has a great influence on the sense of empowerment.

Both the teacher characteristics and learner characteristics are essential to increase the sense of learner empowerment.

Kirk, et al. (2016)

To identify both intrapersonal and environmental factors that predict increased empowerment and outcomes associated with empowerment.



Learners’ characteristics.

Clinical placement characteristics.

The students’ behavioural and academic characteristics indicate that students who reported a high level of intrapersonal empowerment are less likely to be engaged in trouble, less likely to skip class, more likely to participate in activities extracurricular, and get higher grades.

Liao & Liu (2016)

Identify senior nursing student’ level of empowerment and its relation with clinical competencies


A cross-sectional survey.

Learners’ characteristics.

The students showed a strong correlation between the empowerment level and clinical competencies level.

Learner orientation to learning

Khater, Akhu-Zaheya, & Shaban (2014)

Assess the stress types, sources, and coping strategies


A descriptive, cross-sectional, comparison design.

Learners’ attitudes toward learning.

The most common source of stress is the assignment prior to the clinical training. Stress was found to be less in senior nursing students in comparison with junior students. Students reported that the stress level decreased with their academic progression, and how they become more confident of their knowledge and skills.

Papp, Markkanen, & von Bonsdorff (2003)

To describe the clinical environment in relation to clinical learning experiences in Taiwan


Qualitative design (unstructured interview)

Learners’ perception of the teaching.

Learners’ attitudes toward learning.

Students stated that the feeling of appreciation encourages them to show positive attitudes toward learning.

Self-directed students, who are aware of their limitations and potential had a sense of responsibility toward learning

Learning-teaching experiences

Al-Hussami, et al. (2011)

To assess the nursing students’ relationship with their faculty


A cross-section design.

Educators’ characteristics.

The results of this study highlighted the role of the teacher beyond presentation a class. Teachers should open an interactive and collaborative channels with students to improve the desired learning outcomes.

Cakir (2015)

To assess the teacher’s attitudes in the classroom


A cross-section design.

Educators’ characteristics.

The authoritarian attitudes of the teacher are to control and nurturance in the classroom.

When teacher uses an authoritarian attitude by controlling the classroom and in nurturance context; they feel empowered and thus enhance their learning process.