Study Details (Author, Year)

Sample Characteristics



Adams, 2003 [27]

n = 13 Latina women

Interpretive phenomenology

Patients viewed stress as causal in diabetes. They found it difficult to diet in cultural context, and religion was often drawn on for support.

Alcozer, 2000 [28]

n = 10 Mexican women

Aged 27 to 45 years, living with partners/spouses.

Narrative Interview

Meaning of diabetes was “viewed as a life threat with complications and a shortened life”.

Ahmadani et al., 2012 [29]

n = 110 Pakistani patients

Prospective studies conducted in the month of fasting

Active glucose monitoring and patients education helped to manage diabetes.

Ahmadani et al., 2008 [30]

n = 327 Pakistani patients with fasting

Questionnaire based survey of self-management

Patients required special attention on self-management of diabetes during the fasting period.

Broom and Whittaker, 2004 [31]

n = 119 people with diabetes, 56 service providers, 52% men aged 20 to 90 years.

Unstructured interview of self-management

People concept of diabetes self-management is that of discipline and control. Attempts to avoid stigma might undermine agency for management.

Balcou-Debussche and Debussche, 2009 [32]

n = 42 Creole people with type 2 diabetes; 28 women aged 17 to 72 years

Semi-structured interviews of self-management

Patients experienced a “suspension of reality” in the hospital: everyday constraints of home life were pended, facilitating diabetes management.

Chasens and Olshansky, 2006 [33]

n = 17 people with type 2 diabetes; 35% men and 65% women. Mean age 55 years.

3 focus groups; analysis of grounded theory

Explored the ways in which sleepiness constrained self-management.

Chun and Chelsea, 2004 [34]

n = 16 Chinese American families; mean age = 60 years

Group interviews

Culturally related responses and experiences of type 2 diabetes.

Chelsea and Shun, 2005 [35]

n = 16 Chinese American families; mean age = 60 years

Narrative group interviews

Accommodation was the key response to diabetes and consisted of practices and concerns to balance quality of life.

Fagerli et al., 2005 [36]

n = 15 Pakistanis-born people with diabetes living in Oslo, 4 men, 11 women; age range 38 - 66 years.

Semi-structured interviews

A number of constraints were found―Discontinuity between different types of culturally mediated lay understanding.

Furler et al., 2008 [37]

n = 24 women and 26 men; age range 50 to 80 years.

Four focus groups to elicit “shared frames of meaning” of people with diabetes in communities

Patients described the role of emotional contexts (shock, fear and worry) in self-management. These have influenced approach to self-management

Greenhalgh et al., 2011 [38]

n = 82 patients, aged 25 - 86 years, from 6 ethnic groups

Quasi-naturalistic story-gathering, analyzed thematically.

Self-management should take closer account of over-arching storylines that pattern experience of chronic illness.

Hawthorne and Tomlinson, 1999 [39]

n = 201 Pakistani patients, 101 women and 100 men, 24% knew how to manage diabetes.

One to one semi-structured interviews

Uneducated women did not know much about self-management-require culturally appropriate, health education and support.

Huang et al., 2005 [40]

n = 28 older people with type 2 diabetes; age range 65 to 88 years (12 men)

Semi-structured interviews analyzed with grounded theory

Patient’s health care goals were social and functional, as compared to bio-medical.

Jezewski and Poss, 2002 [41]

n = 22 Mexican American with type 2 diabetes; 4 men; age range 29 - 77 years.

Semi-structured interviews followed by focus groups; analyzed by grounded theory

Patients’ explanatory frameworks for diabetes drew on both lay and biomedical understandings.

Keval, 2009 [42]

n = 18 South Asian, Gujarati-speaking United Kingdom residents; 10 men; age range 40 to 88

Semi-structured interviews analyzed by grounded theory

Patients viewed their social and cultural networks as facilitating self-management.

Khowaja and Waheed, 2010 [26]

n = 500 type 2 diabetic patients in Agha Khan University hospital Pakistan. Age range 30 - 70 Years

Cross section study design―interviews with structured questionnaire.

Self-management of diabetes is was associated with clinically and statistically better glycemic control.