Measurement method

Domestic patent application acceptance number (patent)

Logarithmic processing (lnpatent)

Domestic patent application authorization number (patentapply)

Logarithmic processing (lnpatentapply)

Second industry GDP ratio (ind)

Secondary industry GDP/regional GDP

Tertiary industry GDP ratio (ser)

Tertiary industry gross production value/regional GDP

Higher education level (edu)

Number of students in higher education schools/regional total population

Openness (open)

Regional import and export volume/regional GDP

Foreign investment level (fdi)

Regional foreign direct investment/regional GDP

R&D spending (rd)

Regional R&D expenditure/regional GDP