Variable name | Explanation |

SYD1 | Goodwill Impairment accounts for total goodwill before goodwill is accrued |

Recover | Change of chairman or general manager takes 1, otherwise 0 |

Big4 | The value of the four audits takes 1, otherwise 0 |

Size | Natural logarithm of total assets at the end of the year |

SYsize | Natural logarithm of goodwill |

ROE | Ratio of net profit to ownersâ€™ equity at the end of the year |

Growth | Company growth |

OWN | The ratio of the number of shares held by the largest shareholder to the total number of shares |

Lev | Ratio of total liabilities to total assets at the end of the year |

BTM | Ratio of Book value of total assets to market value of total assets |

Balance | Ratio of Shareholding of top ten shareholders minus shareholding of largest shareholder to the largest shareholder |

Num | Natural logarithm of Total number of directors at the end of the year |

Year | virtual variable |

Ind | virtual variable |