Dominant Policy

Salient Features



Command and control system

ü Establishment of Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB)

EPB established in 1974 and in 1982 incorporated into ministry of urban and rural construction


Adoption of policy Instruments to pursue environmental governance

ü 1990: National Environment Protection Agency (NEPA) was formed

ü 2003: NEPA upgraded to State Environment Protection Agency

ü In 2002 allowed ENGOs to participate in world summit on sustainable development in Johannes burgh


Scientific approach to development and environmental protection (2005)

ü “Agenda-setting” for environmental governance by reaching out to other stakeholders

ü Legal requirements to disclose information to government

ü ‘Three transformations’: a) Equal preference to environmental protection and economic development b) From an economy centre development to a development model which gives preference to environmental protection and economic development c) From purely administrative measures to comprehensive system involving state, business and civil society

ü Ministry of Environment Protection’s 12369 hotline allowing public supervision of enforcement of environmental regulations

ü Publication of official data on environmental matters which till recently was treated as official secret

ü 179 cities have transparent data on matters related to environmental regulations