All Women

Muslim Women of the Muslim Diaspora in Western countries

Muslim Women in Muslim Majority Cultures

Macro Level

Positive Trends

Negative Trends

Government policies favour & firms recognise women’s strengths

Glass ceiling remains, women not adequately represented in leading firms; discrimination still marked

Western countries (e.g. UK) has Equal Opportunity law

Law (e.g. UK) not enforced

Islam empowers women, extends “family strength” to “occupational strength”

Patriarchy may prevail, undermining Islamic principles, preventing women’s entry to university/employment

Meso Level

Positive Trends

Negative Trends

Positive hiring by some firms in some countries, reflects both individual and national policies

Discrimination by firms in many countries, despite national policies

Public sector employers do not discriminate?

Many private sector firms will not hire Muslim women: intersectional coincidence of denial of jobs to women, & to Muslims

Some firms recruit “excellent” women employees, give good WLB benefits

Patriarchal managers deny promotion beyond certain levels; glass ceiling remains; women pushed into specialist roles but denied full leadership

Micro Level

Positive Trends

Negative Trends

Unique examples of positive hiring in some firms/sectors

Some firms/sectors fail to recruit/promote women for idiosyncratic or cultural reasons

Muslim women’s mutual support groups

Some Muslim women forced to stay home due to patriarchal, non-Islamic values of male family members

Some firms have good hiring profiles for women.

Most firms operate patriarchal values, male-centred non-hiring or non-promoting of women

Net Results

At least a 75% of top companies have no women in senior roles

Muslim women forced to stay at home; and Muslim men discriminated against too, with poverty level status for many

Many women remain as (strong) child carers and home educators; some have brief work experience before becoming full-time family managers. Very few Muslim women senior managers exist