Conceptual Framework

Theoretical Premise

Factors affecting adjustment

Intervention guidelines

Stress and Coping (Affect)

Cross-cultural travellers need to develop special coping strategies to deal with the stress of migration

All life changes are constant but inherently stressful

Adjustment factors involving personal (demographic, personality, values) and situational (e.g. social support)

Training people to develop robust stress-coping and management skills

Culture Learning (Behaviour)

Cross-cultural travellers need to learn culturally relevant social skills to communicate in their new settings

Social interaction is a skilled performance which has to be learnt and practiced

Culture specific variables. knowledge about a new culture, language/communication competence, social intelligence cultural distance.

Preparation, orientation and culture learning, especially behavioural-based social skill training as well as social and emotional intelligence

Social Identification (Social Cognition)

Cross-cultural transition have to adjust to changes in cultural identity and inter-group relations

Sense of personal and group identity is a fundamental issue for all travellers

Cognitive variables knowledgeable of the host culture (History, Religion, Etiquette) beliefs/attitudes between hosts and sojourners, cultural similarity, cultural identity

Enhancing self-esteem, overcoming barriers to inter-group harmony, emphasising inter-group similarities and identity