Collapsed Othman empire.

Having independent states (Iraq, Syria and Turkey) sharing rivers to impose a potential conflict.



First agreement between Iraq-French Syria-Turkey, agreed not to form any change without consulting downstream countries.

Turkey totally ignored and claims that the agreement is irrelevant with current economic and political context.



Signing the treaty of friendship by King Faisal II and the Turkish president.

Turkey ignored the implementation of this treaty.



Iraq, Syria and Turkey duplicate the population.

Water resource demand increased dramatically and starts to emerge as a vital for community development.



Turkey planning to build dams to control water shares.

Iraq objected to the plans which expect to reduce water flow.



Turkey start the Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP).

Iraq and Syria criticize the project because it is expected to reduce the water flow 80% and 50% respectively.


Syria complete Tabqa dam.

Almost bring Iraq and Syria to a war unless Saudi Arabia and Kuwait helped to pulled them back.



Iraq and Turkey held a forum to discuss regional water issues.

Establishing the Joint Technical Committee (JTC) as a mechanism to find mutual agreement.



Syria Join the JTC.

Meetings held by the three countries to discuss further developments.



Turkey and Syria came to an protocol over water sharing with flow rate 500 cubic m³/sec.

Turn to political level since Turkey roll on the table the political collaboration about Kurds. Iraq didn’t join them.



Iraqi-Syrian bilateral agreement.

Still no agreement took place between Iraq-Turkey.


Atatürk dam completed, Turkey cut off the Euphrates water to fill the dam. Iraq asked to share 700 cubic m³/sec. later on since Atatürk is completed.

Temporary reduced 75% from Euphrates river for both Iraq and Syria, Iraq threat by military attack to demolish the dam, Turkey move their forces to be ready for any conflict and replay by threating to cut off river flow completely.



Former Turkish Prime Minister SuleymanDemirel announced: “We do not say we share their oil resources. They cannot say they share our water resources. This is a right of sovereignty. We have the right to do anything we like”.

Turkey received notes of objections from Iraq and Syria with respect to the dam’s impacts.



Iraq and Syria notifies Turkey about construction of the Birecik where Euphrates water level reduced and polluted by Turkish irrigation activities.

Turkey rejects within month the allegation and arguments.



Turkey moved with GAP project.

Tigris and Euphrates levels fallen by more than two thirds, this led to the infiltration of salt water from the Arabian Gulf into the Shatt Al-Arab River. salt water reached beyond Basrah ruined many Iraqi territories, 30.000 people immigrates northward and UNESCO report estimated 100,000 Iraqis left their communities due to water shortages and warned that these vital lifelines could dry up completely by 2040.


World water summit, Iraq reported a potential food security problem and needs at least 500 cubic m³/sec.

Turkey promised 400 cubic m³/sec. the promise was not fulfilled. Turkey justified a 46% decrease in rainfall over the previous three years.



Iraq protest lower corps domestic production.

The drying up of Iraq’s Southern Marshlands to as a major environmental problem.



The Ilisu dam expected to be done.

Tigris will decrease about 50% from downstream flows.



GAP project expected to be done.

70% - 80% from surface water will be reduced.