United States

South Afreica

Operating concessions

The ministry of commerce granted the wholesale operation qualification of refined oil to 3 CTL enterprises in 2009 and 2010


In 1947, the South African government allocated liquid fuel production licenses to Anglovaal.

Since 1954, the South African government has required all gas stations to have Sasol pumps (the Blue Pump).

Joint venture

Most CTL enterprises such as shenhua, yankuang and lu’an are state-owned enterprises

In 1975, the United States government participated in the investment of the great plain CTG project. In 1980, the state-owned United States synthetic oil company was established to direCTLy invest in the construction of CTL projects. In 2007, the U.S. air force invested in the construction of a 1.5 Mt/a CTL plant at Malmstrom air force base

Sasol, a state-owned CTL company founded by the South African government in 1950, now operates the largest scale of CTL project in the world

Direct subsidy

In 1998, the state council of China allocated 11 billion Yuan of coal-replacing-oil fund to Shenhua. R & d grants from MOST, NDRC and NSFC

Since 2007, the U.S. government has allocated $8 billion to various coal-power and gasification projects. In 2016, the US Navy, DOE and USDA allocated 210 Million USD to three BTL companies

Since 1989, the South African government has allocated a total of R6 billion to SASOLouth Africa continues to subsidize production for all refiners.

The South African government has subsidised Sasol’s production of CTL with petrol taxes since 1970

government purchases

The logistics department of the Chinese air force tested Shenhua CTL as jet fuel (2012); China aerospace science and technology corporation tests Shenhua coal-based rocket fuel (2015)

In 2006, Edward air force base purchased Syntroleum’s coal-based synthetic oil to test jet fuel. US Great Green Fleet purchases biofuels in 2013 and 2016


loan guarantee

Preferential loans from China development bank for key CTL projects; State-owned Banks guarantee loans for coal-to-oil projects.

In 2005, the U.S. government began offering loan guarantees for commercialization of new energy technologies, including CTL


Tax breaks

In 2017, the Ningxia government applied to the central government for reduction of consumption tax on refined oil products for the CTL demonstration project

From 2005 to 2009, the U.S. government granted tax breaks for alternative fuels





fuel tariffs

Mineral resource allocation

Since 2004, the Chinese government has given priority of coal resources to CTL industry