Responds to Own Textual Responding as a Listener

The child who responds to his own textual responding as a listener can listen to him or herself reading and comprehend.

Multiple Exemplar Instruction across Auditory and Visual Components of Reading Responses [3]

New learning opportunities: This cusp is the foundation for covert reading comprehension.

Print Transcription

A verbal behavior cusp that enables one to write with point-to-point correspondence to a printed model (see-write)

Learn Units to Establish Transcription [112]

New learning opportunities: Foundational cusp for establishing the need to write

Transformation of Stimulus Function across Saying and Writing

This cusp allows individuals to acquire stimulus control such that they can learn in one topography (saying) and emit the behavior in the other topography (writing), and vice versa. For example, a child learns to spell vocally (i.e., C-A-T is cat) and can also write CAT. This cusp, with BiN and observational learning of new operants, is critical to success in a general education environment.

Multiple Exemplar Instruction Across Saying and Writing [34] [105]

New learning opportunities: The vocal verbal topography and written verbal topography are joined.


One hears words and produce in print (hear-write)

Instruction to Establish Dictation [109]

New learning opportunities: Foundational cusp for establishing the need to write

Read-do Correspondence

Reading governs responding such that one can follow written directions

Reader emersion [3] [72]

New learning opportunities: The child can follow simple directions in a written topography, serving as a foundation for

more complex reading comprehension. This cusp establishes the learned reinforcement functions for technical reading as well as the obvious discriminative functions.

Textual Responding Joins BiN Repertoire

Print stimuli are also joined to the listener and speaker responses joined in BiN [3]

Word-Picture Matching Discrimination [51] [110]

New Learning Capability. Children can now read as print stimulus control acquires all of the properties of the spoken word without the constraints of time. The read word results in conditioned seeing [111] [112]

Textual Responses Function as Auditory Conditioned Reinforcers

Listening to a story is reinforced by one’s own speaker responding

MEI Across Auditory and Visual Components of Reading Responses [51] [113]

New learning opportunities: Overt textual responses become covert

Technical Writing Precisely Affects Reader’s Behavior

This cusp allows a writer to affect a reader such that the reader can produce the writer’s desired outcome.

Writer Immersion Protocol [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120]

New learning opportunities: Technical writing precision is the beginning of sophisticated algorithmic writing.

Aesthetic Writing Affects Emotions

This cusp enables one to write to evoke emotions such as laughter or sadness.

Writer Immersion Protocol [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [121] [122]

New learning opportunities: Writing to affect a reader’s emotions is truly social and the basis of novels, poetry, and lyrics. Further, a writer can affect a reader across generations, expanding their verbal community.

Writer Self-Editing

Reader and writer/editor rotate within one skin

Multiple Exemplar Instruction across Reader and Writer Repertoires with a Peer-Yoked Contingency [119] [120]

New learning opportunities: The writer becomes an effective editor by reading the text as the target audience thereby increasing the probability that the behavior of the target reader will be affected by the writing.