New Learning Capability

A capability allows a child to learn in ways that the child could not before (i.e., see and do, observing others receive reinforcement or corrections, or exposure). Children contact the reinforcers that are now embedded in the stimuli as conditioned reinforcers.

Metamorphosis Status: Chrysalis-Butterfly



Protocol Procedure & Research



A verbal behavior cusp and capability that enables one to “see” and “do” untaught novel actions without being directly reinforced by instructor [77] [78] [79] [80] . The correspondence between seeing and doing is the reinforcer [3] [46] [81] .

Early research did not establish rigorous evidence of generalized imitation [78] until the development of the Mirror Protocol [77] [82] [83] .

This is because correspondence between seeing and doing become the reinforcer. This, in turn creates an observational stimulus control for learning the topography of a behavior.

Generalized Imitation


Imitation responses require direct instruction and are reinforced by prosthetic reinforcement. (Prosthetic reinforcers are those that are not the natural result of the response. For example, receiving money for singing or a token for correctly imitating.) Corrections for incorrect responses require physical prompts. Operants can be formed only by shaping.

Reinforcement Shift

From direct instructional and prosthetic reinforcement to learned reinforcement for correspondence.

Generalized Imitation Present

Novel motor responses are acquired through observation and are reinforced by “see-do” correspondence between one’s own action and the model. There is no need to teach each operant directly. Corrections for incorrect responses may only require model demonstration.


New learning capability allows the learning of word-object relations incidentally. Source of learning 55,000 to 86,000 words by elementary school. Additional stimulus control accrues from additional experience once basic BiN is demonstrated

as a result of pairings: BiN and actions, BiN and additional auditory stimuli, olfactory stimuli, and tactile stimuli enter the BiN “frame.” Critical cusp that allows children to learn from demonstration and observation, critical repertoire for inclusion success These cusps are the sources of slow and fast mapping.

[28] [52] [75] [88] [89]

Learning multiple relations from one experience: Stimulus Equivalence [89] Multiple types of relations such as opposites, comparatives, deictic, Relational Frame Theory [4]

Multiple Exemplar Instruction [84] [85]

Intensive Tact Protocol [60] [62] [64] [65] [66] Conditioning stimuli for observing responses as fundamental source for the onset of the echoic as the learned reinforcer for BiN [44] [86] [87]

BiN Absent

Children require direct instruction to learn new language, i.e., they must be directly reinforced or corrected in order to acquire new language. [31] [84]

Reinforcement Shift

From direct instructional reinforcement to learned reinforcement.

BiN Present

With BiN (and the other cusps that join the speaker and listener within the skin) one becomes fully verbal. Children learn language incidentally. They can observe a vocal and visual stimulus as a listener and emit the same response as a speaker, without being directly taught. As such, they can be taught differently through antecedent stimuli, rather than only through instructor consequences. Children are taught through model demonstration instruction and rather than through feedback instruction only. Research suggests that BiN is an essential to the formation of complex cognitive behavior and reading comprehension [51] [90] .

Observational Learning

A verbal behavior cusp and capability that enables one to learn from observing the instruction of other receive as feedback. Reinforcements for correct responses and particularly corrections for incorrect responses must be observed. [91]

Children can now learn from receiving learn units via peer-yoked contingencies, peer tutoring, and peer monitoring, response boards, choral responding, video presentations [91] - [97]