Maternal activities

Nest building


Consumption of amniotic fluid

Stimulation of newborn (anogenital licking)

Non-nutritive contact

Defensive aggression

Mother behavior toward pups

Retrieval (latency and retrieval number)

Grouping (latency)

Non-nutritive contact (duration)

Nursing contact (latency to an nutritive episode)

Licking and grooming pups

Nursing posture/crouching

Providing warmth and safety/nest building

Maternal aggression

Non maternal self-directed and motor activities

Increased food consumption (active)

Self-related behaviors (grooming and eating)

Resting (passive)

Exploratory motor activities (horizontal activities)