Bioadhesion mechanism

Electrostatic: Electrostatic forces between the tissue and the bioadhesive material.

Wetting: Ability of the bioadhesive to spread and develop intimate contact with the target surface.

Adsorption: Surface forces resulting in chemical bonding between the target material and the bioadhesive.

Diffusion: Results in physical entanglements of the tissue and the bioadhesive’s flexible polymer chains.

Mechanical: Interlocking of the bioadhesive into irregularities on the rough surface of the tissue.