Dr. Thomas J. Fogarty invented and used a balloon embolectomy catheter to remove blood clots from a patient. The catheter became the 1st MIS surgical device (American College of Surgeons, 2013: p. 14) .


Sir John Charnley, M.D. perfected the total hip replacement system by introducing two new materials (bone cement and high density polyethylene). In 1962, he successfully implanted the 2-component artificial hip joint made of metal and plastic. The joint was similar to a natural one. After years of research, the Charnley hip has become a gold standard (American College of Surgeons, 2012: p. 139) .


Dr. Denton Cooley of Texas 1st successfully implanted an artificial heart in a patient, followed by transplantation of a donor heart that kept him alive for 30-hour (Nahrwold & Kernahan, 2012: p. 270) .


Dr. William S. Pierce (thoracic surgeon and chemical engineer) developed the Penn State Heart-Assist Pump, the 1st surgically implantable pulsatile blood pump used in thousands of patients worldwide with excellent results (American College of Surgeons, 2013: p. 16) .


The prototype for the cochlear implant was 1st implanted by Dr. William F. House (father of neurotology). The device provides hearing for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients when hearing aids do not work.


Dr. Lazar J. Greenfield invented a filter to be placed inside the inferior vena cava. It is the 1st effective method of trapping IVC clots to prevent pulmonary embolism (American College of Surgeons, 2013: p. 16) .


Dr. Robert H. Bartlett successfully treated an infant with respiratory failure using extra-corporal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) at the University of California-Irvine. This accomplishment changed the 90% mortality of neonatal lung failure into 90% survival rate (American College of Surgeons, 2013: p. 17) .


Dr. Juan Carlos Parodi of Argentina reported the 1st successful endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in five patients. This less invasive approach represented a quantum change in managing patients with vascular disease (American College of Surgeons, 2012: p. 189) .