Historiographic school

Conception of history of science

Picture of both science and scientists

Historians’ task

(Old) positivistic


History of the positive scientific results; determination of a discover’s date

Science as a cumulative growth; a great scientist as a point of accumulation of a lot of results

Ordering the cumulative results, linearization of the events

KOYRE’ (1939)

History of both results and errors in the scientific development

Each scientist is placed within both the culture of his time and the scientific context

Recognition of both scientific and philosophical factors of the historical change

KUHN (1962)


History of science structured by revolutions

Scientists’ community,

normal science, paradigm, anomaly, incommensurability, revolution

Recognition of the paradigms severed by revolutions