(Marhefka et al., 2013)

United States

To evaluate participant satisfaction, facilitators, experiences and technology of video group delivery of the Healthy Relationships intervention for women living with HIV.


Video education using a terminal at primary care clinics to connect to a remote education group.

N = 4

Demographics, qualitative discussion and open-ended questionnaire.


Video group participation was feasible and valued by participants. Efficacy was not evaluated.

(Martin-Khan et al., 2012)


Evaluating the use of VC versus standard in-person care to establish a diagnosis of dementia.


VC with ISDN connection.

N = 205

(VC = 100 In-person = 105) patients aged 50 or older referred for cognitive assessment.

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rowland Universal Dementia

Assessment Scale (RUDAS), Clock Face Test (CFT),

Letter Naming Verbal Fluency Test (FAS),

Naming Animals Verbal Fluency, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 questions (GDS-15), Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

(IQCODE), Neuropsychiatric Inventory Short form (NPI-Q), and

Disability. Assessment for Dementia (DAD).

Mental Health

In general, there was agreement between the VC and in-person assessments with only 1% difference between the total scores for overall agreement.

(Marziali & Donahue, 2006)


To compare the effectiveness of an internet based VC support intervention to a no treatment group in a sample of caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease.


Web Based VC

N = 66 caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer’s, stroke related dementia, and Parkinson’s.

Health Status Questionnaire 12, abbreviated Medical Outcomes Study 36, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, self-report of depressive affect and behavior, instrumental ADLs, Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist, and Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.

Neuro/ Mental Health/ Caregivers

Over half of the caregivers had never used computers but reported that the training was sufficient and 78% indicated the website was easy to use. 95% rated using the computers as a positive experience. At least one participant reported that VC was more helpful than in-person. The VC group improved on reported stress- and the control group worsened.

There was significantly higher attrition in the control group.