(Dorsey et al., 2013)

United States

To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and economic benefits of VC care for persons with Parkinson disease in their home.


Web Based VC

N = 20 (VC = 9, control = 11) patients with Parkinson disease and Internet access at home.

Percentage of VC visits completed as scheduled, Parkinson Disease Questionnaire, time, and travel.


VC offers similar clinical control and saved participants 100 miles of travel and 3 hours of time.

(Grady, 2002)

United States

To compare the costs to patients, medical system, and organization of four methods of mental healthcare in military medical clinics.

Cost analysis

Dedicated equipment with an ISDN connection.

Not stated

Cost analysis

Mental Health

The least expensive method of mental healthcare delivery was tele-mental health care using video conferencing.

(Grady & Melcer, 2005)

United States

Compare treatment and outcomes of mental health care via VC to in-person care.

Retrospective chart review

Video conferencing via phone lines/ISDN.

N = 81 (VC = 51 and in-person = 30) Adult patients in the VA system Seeking mental health care between April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000.

The Global Assessment of Functioning scale, Laboratory studies,

number of medications, compliance,

mental status examination, recommendations to utilize

resources, and general number and type

of diagnosis,


characteristics of the psychiatrists.

Mental Health

Global assessment of functioning and compliance was statistically significant for improved for the VC group as compared to in-person interactions. No significant differences in number of tests, self-help recommendations, assessments or numbers of medications were seen.

(Hailey, 2008)


To review evidence related to clinical and administrative outcome of tele-mental health studies.

Review article

Specific VC type for each article Not discussed.

72 published papers “Conducted in a scientifically valid

Manner” reporting clinical or administrative outcomes

controlled studies

VC was compared with a non-VC alternative and

Non-controlled studies 20 or more

subjects related to tele-mental health.

General mental health, depression, panic disorder, smoking, cognitive disability, pediatrics, OCD, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, suicide prevention, PTSD.

Mental Health

The quality of VC studies was limited with most being preliminary. The two RCTs in the paper found no difference in quality of VC verses In-person and one non-random study found improved mental health outcomes for VC compared to In-person encounters.