Imaging Modality



Duplex ultrasonography (U/S)

1) Easily accessible

2) Low cost

3) No exposure to radiations

4) No administration of contrast

1) Less accurate in aorticoiliac region in obese patients or gas in intestine

2) Limited sensitivity to stenosis at multiple-levels

3) Limited sensitivity in heavily calcified vessels

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

1) Gadolinium enhanced and non-contrast approaches available

2) Contrast used is neither iodinated nor ionized

1) In-stent restenosis limit by metal artifact

2) In patients with advanced renal diseases risk of NSF

Computed tomography angiography (CTA)

1) Rapid

2) High spatial resolution

3) Better in-stent restenosis visualization than MRA

4) Faster than MRA

1) Scan of heavily calcified vessels

2) Use of iodinated contrast

3) Exposure to radiations