Local estimate/observation




Along the coast of the Sultanate of Oman (Arabian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea) from the Musandam Peninsula in the north to Dhofar in the south.


Depth range

Occurs in the water column less than 100 m in depth.


Migration pattern of species

During the summer months (May until August) kingfish appear to move northwards into the Arabian Gulf from the eastern Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. This movement is believed to be for spawning, which lasts for a period of one to four months. The return journey of the spent (maturity stage category) fish occurs by the end of summer.




Feeds mainly in open water on small pelagic fish (e.g. sardines and anchovies), as well as on invertebrates (e.g. squid) and feeding apparently takes place during the day and night.


Catch size

Estimated between 24 and 197 cm fork length (FL), with the majority falling within the 48 - 147 cm fork length (FL).


Maximum age recorded

21 years for female & no male older than 10 years



Immature kingfish are caught together with other species


Size at first capture

40 - 60 cm fork length (FL)

45 cm fork length (FL)

[4] [7]

Age at first capture

4 - 6 months


Size at first maturity

Combined:75 - 80 cm (FL)

Male: 84.7 cm fork length (FL)

Female: 80.4 cm fork length (FL)

[4] [27]

Age at first


18 - 24 months

[7] [27]

Sex ratio

Male/Female: 0.74 (Oman Sea)

Male/Female: 1.10 (Arabian Sea)



Z (Total Mortality)

Male: 0.892 year−1


Female: 0.901 year−1

M (Natural Mortality)

Male: 0.490 year−1

Female: 0.376 year−1

F (Fishing Mortality)

Male: 0.402 year−1

Female: 0.534 year−1

M (Natural Mortality): 0.35 year−1, 0.64 year−1 and 0.77 year−1 (based on life-history parameters using three different estimation methods)

F (Fishing Mortality): 0.5 - 0.6 year−1

[5] [10]

Growth rate

Rapid up until 2 years of age

[4] [7]



Spawning period mostly from April to June.


Spawning biomass per-recruit (SBR)

SBR (at the current fishing rates) as compared to a virgin stock.

Male at 27%


Female at 16%