Toxin/Therapeutic target

Type of inhibitor and specifications

Potential mechanism of action

Phase of development



Anti-Hla MAb

MAbs 7B8 & 1A9

Antagonizes the toxin activity and block the formation of α-hemolysin oligomer on the target

Mice pneumonia model


Anti-Hla MAb

High affinity MAb 2A3.1

Inhibits toxin mediated cell lysis by blocking the formation of toxin heptamers on erythrocyte membranes

Independent animal models, S.aureus mouse dermonecrotic model and pneumonia model




Prevents the binding of toxin to the plasma membrane of susceptible host cells

Mice pneumonia, skin and bacteremia models


Chemical compound


(β-cyclodextrin derivatives)

Blocks the trans membrane pores and prevents the ion leakage through the pores

Mice pneumonia model


Chemical compound

Isatin-Schiff copper (II) complexes

Prevents the formation of ion channels by obstructing the constriction region of the hemolysin channel

In vitro assays


Chemical compound

ADAM10 inhibitor (GI254023X)

Inhibits binding of α-hemolysin to its host receptor (ADAM10)

Mice model of recurrent skin and soft tissue infection


Natural compound

Oroxylin A, Oroxin A and Oroxin B

Binds to the stem region of α-hemolysin and prevents conformational transition of toxin from monomer to oligomer

In vitro assays


Natural compound

Morin hydrate

Inhibits self-assembly of the heptameric trans membrane pore of α-hemolysin

Mice pneumonia model


Natural compound


Inhibits the pore forming

Mice pneumonia model


Natural compound


Interrupts the formation of heptamer

In vivo assays