Huang [16] and modifications [17]

Kim and Singh [18]

Berson [19]

Trillium Flap


Inverted nipple repair

Inverted nipple repair

Neo-nipple reconstruction

Neo-nipple reconstruction

Main differences

Three diamond-shaped flaps to pass through tunnels under the nipple while the nipple was retracted, and the lactiferous ducts and fibrous tissue were transected (Figure 8(A)).

The elevated dermal flaps are passed through the tunnels created and sutured to the adjacent deepithelialized

dermal region. Design depends on twisting and locking

principle (Figure 8(B)).

It may be considered as one of the first attempts to reconstruct a neo-nipple. Elevation of three thin split thickness flaps based on a central undisturbed skin disk. The three flaps were bunched centrally creating an umbilicated nipple and leaving a deepithelialized zone that was allowed to heal as the areola (Figure 8(C)).

· Mainly targets Neo-nipple reconstruction.

· No dermal flaps tunneled

· No twisting

· Flaps separately depend on three peripheral bases not one central base (Figure 8(D)).