Head and neck (6)

Chiari malformation

Brain stem compression

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Atlantoaxial instability

Craniocervical instability


Intracranial aneurysm

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (7)

Headaches and migraines (8)

Intermittent compression of vertebral arteries

Compression of upper cervical nerve roots from C0 to C2 hypermobility (6))

Spine (6)

Segmental kyphosis and instability

Tethered cord syndrome

Tarlov cyst syndrome (8)

Meningeal ecstasias/cysts

Spontaneous cerebrospinal leak (9)


Structural defects such as mitral valve prolapse and aortic root dilatation (hEDS) (11, 17, 18)

Dysautonomia (10)

Increased peripheral pooling (12)

Severe progressive cardiac-valvular aortic valve and mitral valve problems (cvEDS)



Rib subluxations

Pulmonary bullae

Decreased pulmonary volumes secondary to kyphoscoliosis

Obstructive sleep apnea (13)

GI (19)


Intestinal dysmotility (14)

Visceroptosis (15)

Hollow visceral (intestines, uterus) rupture

Rectal/uterine prolapse (16)

Visceral fragility (dEDS and vEDS)


Neurogenic bladder (6, 17)

Interstitial cystitis (20)

Musculoskeletal (8)

Joint subluxations and dislocations (8)

Myopathy (25)

Fatigue (22)

Poor joint proprioception (23)

Muscle weakness, axonal polyneuropathy, atrophy of muscles of hands and feet (24)


Bleeding disorders (20)

Mast cell activation syndrome (20, 21)

Vascular fragility


Dysautonomia (22)

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (22, )

Neuropathy (26, 27)

Small fiber peripheral neuropathy (28)

Entrapment neuropathy (24, 27, 28)

Unpredictable response to local anesthetic