Strategies items


Metacognittive Strategies

Advanced organizers

Making a general but comprehensive preview of the concept or principle in an anticipated learning activity.

Direct attention

Deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning task and to ignore irrelevant distracters.

Selective attention

Deciding in advance to attend specific aspects of language input or situational details that will cue the retention of language input.

Advance preparation

Planning for and rehearsing linguistic component necessary to carry out an upcoming language task


Correcting one’s speech for accuracy in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, or for appropriateness related to the setting or to the people who are present.


Checking the outcomes of his language learning against an internal measure of completeness and accuracy.

Cognitive Strategies


Imitating a language model, including overt practice and silent rehearsal.


Defining or expanding a definition of a word or concept through use of target reference material.

Direct physical response

Relating new information to physical actions as directive.


Using the first language as a base for understanding and/or producing the second language.


Reordering or reclassifying and perhaps labeling the material to be learned based on common attributes.


Writing down the main idea, important points, outline, or summary of information presented orally or in writing.


Consciously applying rules to produce or understand the second language.


Relating new information to visual concepts in memory via familiar easily retrievable visualization, phrases, or locations.


Placing a word or phrase in a meaningful language sequence.


Relating new information to other concepts in memory.


Using previously acquired linguistic and/or conceptual knowledge to facilitate a new language learning task.


Using available information to guess meanings of new items, predict outcomes, or fill in missing information.


Cooperation activity.

Working with one or more peers to obtain feedback, pool information, or model a language

Question for classification

Asking a teacher or other native speaker for repetition, paraphrasing, explanation, and/or examples.