Keynesian paradigm

Neo-liberal paradigm

Social investment (SIWS)

Causes of unemployment

Insufficient demand

Rigidities in the labour market

Lack of appropriate skills

Guiding values and principles

Social equity

work for everyone


Individual responsibility any job


Social inclusion more and better jobs

capacitation equal opportunities

prepare rather than repair

Norms underlying public action

Big state

growth of the welfare state

Lean state

dismantling of the welfare state

Empowering state

reconfiguration of the welfare state

Main tools

Demand support


income support

Monetarist policies


privatization workfare

Human capital

development of services for access to employment flexicurity