Content of interaction

Outcomes from groups

Mechanisms which explain benefit

Factor which influences benefit

Openness of sharing personal lived experience

Increased knowledge or understanding of cancer

Use of metaphor helped reframe suffering―enabled learning―

Space where openness is possible ―prevented in other interactions

Use of humour

Shared understanding of coping―shared strategies

Group can allow self-directed content

Domination of one member of the group

Real or lived interaction

Allows a space for emotions to be expressed

Being able to express suffering

Sharing loss

Negative experience having shared information used inappropriately

Understanding of coping behaviours increases

Other stakeholders /Facilitator sharing personal information― allowed or gave permission to open up

Personal difficulties revealed

Increase in valuable/trusted relationships

Lack of judgement given on any sharing

Negative experience―not wanting to share opening

Hopes, fears, losses

Introduction of hope

Others feel really heard

How challenges are overcome

Increase in activities

Knowing someone else is experience what they are going through― validation of suffering

Reaffirming a sense of self and self identity

Decrease blame on themselves

Sense of control

No perceived need to fix problems

Impact on emotional well being

Reaffirming a sense of self and self identity

Social well being

Use of humour

Legitimise experiences

Unity in sharing

Enhanced interactions, activities or accomplishments

Getting past stereotypes of others― towards what their lives are like

Silence facilitated interaction, enabled sharing, some were unhappy with the silence