Explanatory Variables


Yang et al. [38]

Japan: 1994-2014

Import from Japan by 30 largest export partner countries; GDP per capita; Degree of the economic integration; Political risk of Japan’s largest exports partner countries; Outward FDI from Japan to its 30 largest exports partner countries.

Japan exports to countries with higher political stability, higher degree of economic integration with Japan and to countries which have larger outward foreign direct investment from Japan.

Kadochnikov & Fedyunina [39]

Russia: 2002-2010

Human and financial resource characteristics; Gravity variables and product characteristics; Product heterogeneity; Industry, Destination and year dummies.

A better availability of human and financial resources improves export survival across Russian regions.

Rodil et al. [40]

213 firms located in Galicia (north-west region of Spain): 2004-2005

Innovation variables; Structural characteristics (size and sector).

There is a positive relationship between innovation and exporting and that some factors (particularly, variety of innovation and marketing innovation) are critical.

Navarro-García et al. [41]

196 Spanish exporting firms: 2012

Human resources (number of employees and managers); Competitive intensity in foreign markets; Export commitment; Marketing mix strategic decisions.

Positive relationship between human resources―employees and managers―working on export activity and export commitment.

Pino et al. [42]

299 exporting firms in fast growing South American emerging economies (Colombia, Peru, and Chile): 2013-2014

Type of firm; Localization of firm; Size (number of employees); Age of firm; Foreign investment; Sector; Legal status of the firm.

Organizational innovations (new or improved organizational methods) have more influence on market performance than marketing innovations.

Suárez-Porto & Guisado-González [43]

Spanish manufacturing businesses: 2005

Product innovation; Process innovation; Sectorial technological intensity; Business extent; Membership to a pool of businesses.

The product innovation and the process innovation influence in a positive and significant way the exporting intensity.

Skosan & Kabuya [44]

Swaziland: 1980-2010

FDI; Exchange rate; World demand; Domestic consumption; Real GDP.

FDI, world demand, and nominal exchange rate are key significant factors in determining the export performance.

Henn et al. [45]

178 Countries: 1962-2010

Initial product quality level; Initial income per capita; Initial institutional quality; Initial human capital (secondary-school completion rate).

Increases in institutional quality and human capital are associated with faster quality upgrading.

Rodríguez-Pose et al. [46]

Indonesian manufacturing firms: 1990-2005

Firm specific characteristics; First-and second-nature geography characteristics; Regional factors (measured by education as average years of schooling of the adult population).

Agglomeration effects, education, and transport infrastructure endowment play a particularly relevant role in export propensity.

Adeoti [47]

96 firms in Southwest Nigeria employing 20 or more persons

Investment in ICT; Skills intensity ratio; Investment in skills upgrading; Investment in technology hardware; Technological collaboration with foreign firm(s); Investment in quality management; Firm size; Age of firm; Age in exporting; Destination of exporting; Ownership structure.

Firm size has a strong positive relationship with export potential, and it is the most important factor.

Abbasi et al. [48]

Iranian industries: 1995-2007

Import; Labour/capital ratio; Market structure; R & D expenditures; Exchange rate; Skilled labor.

All explanatory variables have positive and significant effect.