To evaluate the long-term efficacy of a brief intervention for the indicated prevention of depression in a sample of female caregivers.

Female caregivers without recent major depression episode or depression history

N = 173

IG = 58

CG = 58

Group format with 5 participants each group


Ÿ 5 sessions

Ÿ Session duration: 1.5 h

Ÿ Session interval: one week

Ÿ Intervention duration: 5 weeks


Ÿ Preintervention

Ÿ Post-intervention

Ÿ 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow-up

Ÿ At the 12-month follow-up, a lower incidence of depression was found in IG.

Ÿ Significant delay in the onset of depression in IG.

Ÿ Good complier caregivers had a lower incidence of depression

Ÿ Intervention effect on depressive symptoms, emotional distress and caregiver burden were maintained for 12 months



As above

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Ÿ At post-treatment, depression symptoms in ighadremitted significantly more than in CG, with a large effect size.

Ÿ IG exhibited a significantly greater reduction in emotional distress and caregiver burden than CG.




To assess the impact of a problem- solving intervention on caregiver quality of life and anxiety,

To compare its effectiveness delivered face to face and via videoconferencing.

Hospice family caregivers

N = 514

IG (face-to-face) = 171

IG (videoconferencing) = 171

CG = 172

Face to face or videoconferencing



3 weekly sessions

Duration: 21days

Session duration: 45min


Ÿ Preintervention

Ÿ Day 15

Ÿ Day 30

Ÿ Day 60

Outcome measurement:

Ÿ Quality of life

Ÿ Anxiety

Ÿ Problem-solving

Ÿ Caregiver reaction (positive and negative reaction)

Ÿ Reduced anxiety and improved quality of life in IG (face-to-face) compared with CG

Ÿ Videoconferencing mediated intervention was not as effective as the F2F group



As above

To compare the effectiveness of a PST intervention delivered face-to-face with one delivered via videophone to hospice primary caregivers.

N = 126

IG (face-to-face) = 77

IG (videophone) = 49

As above

As above

As above

Ÿ PST delivered via video was not inferior to face-to-face delivery.

Ÿ Caregiver quality of life improved and state anxiety decreased under both conditions.