Stages of Change for the Component Behaviors of Advance Care Planning.

Fried et al. [20]

1) To develop stages of change measures for ACP, conceptualized as a group of interrelated but separate behaviors. 2) To use these measures to characterize older persons’ engagement in and factors associated with readiness to participate in ACP.

Observational cohort study


Having thought about these issues; awareness of life-sustaining treatments or of potential trade-offs between quantity and quality of life.

Understanding Advance Care Planning as a Process of Health Behavior Change.

Fried et al. [21]

To explore whether models of health behavior change can help to inform interventions for ACP.

Qualitative cross-sectional study


Communicating their preferences to their loved ones.

Using the Experiences of Bereaved Caregivers to Inform Patient- and Caregiver-Centered Advance Care Planning.

Fried and O’Leary [22]

To understand how the EOL care experiences of older patients and their caregivers can inform the development of new approaches to ACP.

Qualitative cross-sectional study


To hear certain information (e.g., prognostic information, patient’s terminal diagnosis) may help to account for prior findings of discrepancies in perceived communication between physicians and patients or caregivers.

A Dyadic Perspective on Engagement in Advance Care Planning.

Fried et al. [23]

To understand the perspectives of both patients and the person who would make medical decisions for them if they were unable (surrogates) on their participation in ACP.

Qualitative cross-sectional study


To hear what the patient was saying, and surrogates’ reliance on what they know about the patient.

Physicians’ Views on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conversations.

Fulmer et al. [24]

To evaluate physicians’ views on ACP, goals of care, and EOL conversations.

Random sample telephone survey

California, USA

Physicians feel educationally unprepared; their medical school curricula need to be strengthened to ensure readiness for EOL conversations.

Please Ask Gently: Using Culturally Targeted Communication Strategies to Initiate End-of-Life Care Discussions with Older Chinese Americans.

Chi et al. [25]

To explore communication strategies for Health-care providers (HCPs’) to initiate EOL care discussions with older Chinese Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Qualitative ethnographic study


Francisco, USA

Verbal and nonverbal responses to the initiation prompts, and the HCPs’ clinical judgment.