A design



“Conditional Candour” and “Knowing Me”: An Interpretive Description Study on Patient Preferences for Physician Behaviours during End-of-Life Communication.

Abdul-Razzak et al. [14]

To understand patients’ preferences for physician behaviours during end-of-life (EOL) communication.

Qualitative study


Patients are mentally prepared to receive the information to engage in EOL conversations.

“Doctor, Make My Decisions”: Decision Control Preferences, Advance Care Planning, and

Satisfaction with Communication among Diverse Older Adults.

Chiu et al. [15]

To determine the Decision control preferences (DCPs) of diverse, older adults and whether DCPs are associated with participant characteristics, advance care planning (ACP), and communication satisfaction.

Quantitative study


Francisco, USA

To ask questions to doctors and question-asking behaviors.

Readiness of Chinese Frail Old Age Home Residents towards End-of-Life Care Decision Making.

Chan and Pang [16]

To identify different approaches to EOL care decision-making among Chinese frail old age home residents.

Qualitative study

Hong Kong

They were pursuing in their life after the conscious cognitive process of considering their personal wishes for end-of-life care, together with more knowledge about the potential benefits and burdens of these treatments.

“Talk to Me”: A Mixed Methods Study on Preferred Physician Behaviours during End-of-Life Communication from the Patient Perspective.

Abdul-Razzak et al. [17]

To understand patient perspectives on physician behaviours during EOL communication.

Mixed methods study


EOL discussion with a physician, including discussions about resuscitation preferences.

Development of Personalized Health Messages to Promote Engagement in Advance Care Planning.

Fried et al. [18]

To develop and test the acceptability of personalized intervention materials to promote ACP based on the Transtheoretical Model, in which readiness to change is a critical organizing construct.

Quantitative study


Completion of a living will, naming a health care proxy, communication with loved ones about quality vs. quantity of life, and communication with clinicians about quality vs. quantity of life.

Association of Experience with Illness and End-of-Life Care with Advance Care Planning in Older Adults.

Amjad et al. [19]

To examine whether experiences with illness and EOL care are associated with increased readiness to participate in ACP.

Observational cohort study


Completion of a living will and/or healthcare proxy, discussion of life-sustaining treatment and quantity versus quality of life with loved ones, and discussion of quantity versus quality of life with physicians.