Sample Size


Main Findings

Lasater and Nielsen (2009)

To evaluate the influence of concept-based learning activities on students’ clinical judgment development.

n = 28

mixed methods

Quantitative analysis revealed that students in the treatment group scored significantly higher in all phases of the clinical judgment rubric used in the evaluation process.

The qualitative portion of this study found that students reported that they were better able to bridge theory to practice after the simulation experiences.

Bambini, Washburn, and Perkins (2009)

To explore the effects of simulated clinical experiences on undergraduate nursing students to investigate self-efficacy and level of confidence in clinical skills

n = 112

mixed methods

The quantitative study results showed that student’s confidence in various clinical skills acquired after simulation clinical experience showed major increases in both self-efficacy and confidence than before the simulation clinical experience. The analysis of the qualitative data showed that the simulation experience made the participants gain confidence by expecting the real clinical setting and giving them the opportunity to practice their assessments and problem-solving.

Blum et al. (2010)

to assess the impact of high fidelity simulation on student self-confidence and clinical judgment using the LCJR

n = 53

a quasi-experimental study

Nursing students had significant self-confidence and clinical judgment in their first clinical semester

Mariani, Cantrell, Meakim, Prieto, and Dreifuerst (2013)

to compare clinical judgment skills of students that received structured debriefing following a high fidelity simulation experience

n = 86

mixed methods

Debriefing was beneficial in sequencing of the learning experiences, especially in the feedback/guided reflection improves critical thinking, persistence of reflective thinking for patient care

Johnson, Lasater, Hodson-Carlton, Siktberg, Sideras, & Dillard., 2012

evaluated students’ experiences with high fidelity simulation in nursing schools from the United States and United Kingdom

n = 275

a quasi-experimental study

The findings indicated that there were significant differences with the control and treatment groups for the U.K. and U.S. for the aspects of noticing, interpreting, responding, and reflecting based on treatment and control groups

Lindsey and Jenkins (2013)

to examine the impact of a clinical simulation on student nurses’ clinical judgment regarding the management of patients experiencing rapid clinical deterioration

n = 79

a quasi-experimental study

Findings from this study suggest that clinical simulation was effective in improving students’ knowledge and clinical judgment, specifically concerning rapid response systems

Fawaz & Hamdan-Mansour (2016)

to examine the impact of using high-fidelity simulation on the development of clinical judgment and motivation among Lebanese nursing students

n = 56

Mixed method

Results showed that the nursing students in the intervention group exhibited significant improvement in clinical judgment and motivation due to exposure to HFS than control group.

Konieczny, 2017

To compare the effect of low-fidelity and high-fidelity simulation experience on the clinical judgment.

n = 126

a quasi-experimental study

The outcome of the study revealed that the use of high-fidelity simulation is useful in teaching not only the skills of medication administration but also the application of clinical judgment. The increased clinical judgment may improve safety and nursing care in medication administration among nursing students