Land cover types



Spartina alterniflora

Alien invasive plant, is distributed across the whole intertidal salt marshes. The patches with large area and high density, are not available habitats for waterbirds, except their outer periphery.


Sparse Suaeda glauca

Coverage is lower than 40%, which provides breeding habitats for Saunders’s gull, Common Tern, White-fronted Tern and Kentish Plover and so on [36] [38] , and the wintering habitats for Red-crowned crane [39] [40] .


Dense S. glauca

Coverage is higher than 40%, which provides wintering habitats for Red-crowned crane with condition of food availability [39] [40] .


Phragmites australis

The dominant plant is P. australis, mixing with Aeluropus littoralis and Imperatacy cylindrical, provides breeding habitats for Reed parrotbill, and Great reed warbler and so on [35] , and also wintering habitats for Red-crowned crane [39] [40] .


Unvegetated marsh

Bare mudflat and lower land with open water, which provide feeding habitats for breeding and wintering waterbirds.


Intertidal mudflats

Mudflat between the outer peripheries of S. alterniflora in 2003 and 2008, which provides the feeding habitats in the low tide for migratory waterbirds.


Tidal channels and river

The river only distributes in the south boundary of study area. The channels and river can provide feeding habitats for egrets, herons and ducks.



Newly constructed motorbike road in salt marshes, which would increase the human disturbances to waterbirds, and result in the habitat fragmentation.