Renal involvement

Prevlance

Clinical features

Histopathological features

Renal vein thrombosis

Not

recorded

Proteinuria, hematuria, nephrotic syndrome

Thrombosis

Renal artery stenosis/thrombosis

Rare

Hypertension, reduced glomerular filtration rate

Stenosis, more distal than proximal

Primary APS nephropathy

Variable

Hypertension, proteinuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate

Thrombotic microangiopathy, fibrous intimal hyperplasia, membranous glomerulopathy, immune complexes and crescent formation

APS nephropathy and SLE

56% - 67%

Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate

Thrombotic microangiopathy, fibrous intimal hyperplasia, membranous glomerulopathy, immune complexes and crescent formation

Catastrophic APS and the kidney

>‚ÄČ50%

Hypertension, proteinuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate

Acute: thrombotic microangiopathy

Chronic: fibrous intimal hyperplasia, focal cortical atrophy

CKD and renal transplant

Rare

Reduced glomerular filtration rate, early graft loss

Thrombosis