Goffman (1956)

an emotion that results from a breakdown in everyday social encounters.

Sattler (1981)

individuals feel embarrassed when receive unexpected attention

Edelman (1987)

an “uncomfortable psychological state that has a devastating effect on social interaction.”

Sharkey (1992)

result of the difference between an individual’s ideal identity and his manifest identity

Silver (2012)

An unpleasant, restless, powerful emotional state.

Miller (2001)

a repulsive, humiliating state of shame and frustration in the context of public social dilemmas.