Social Capital Dimensions



Structural (A)

Network ties (a1)

[4] [47] [48] [49]

The pattern of connection between actors i.e. Who you reach and how they are reached. Identified as an information-carrying connections between and among actors/people on a network.

Network size (a2)


The Number of actors (individuals or group) within the network i.e. the total number of contacts an actor has in its network and one of the most studied variables of social capital. A large network size means a large number of people an actor interacts with.

Density (a3)

[2] [50] [51] [52]

The degree of interconnection among the actors of a network. Possible connections in a network that are actual connections. Density propagate network cohesion and partners connectedness leading to high-quality and easy information distribution in a dense network.

Social interaction (a4)

[19] [47] [53] [54]

Information exchange and resource flow among actors within a network through network ties. Also refers to the interaction with other customers who participate in economic transactions with a firm

Structural holes (a5)

[55] [56]

Lack of connection between actors within a network. This lack of disconnection between actors exposes them to new networks with diverse experiences and different ideas, which offers them (actors) superior information, opportunities and the possibility of manipulating information flow between disconnected parties for their benefits


Trust (b6)

[4] [19]

The confidence actors have in one another that create the conditions for successful information exchange and resource flow.

Frequency of interaction (b7)

[36] [51] [57]

The rate or regularity of exchange among actors. Interacting frequently has been found to create some sort of norms of reciprocity and relationship-specific investigations that make it easier for information sharing between firms and their clients

Commitment (b8)


A sense of duty, obligation and responsibility to engage in an action that arises from frequent interaction leading to a value generating object.

Cognitive (C)

Shared code and language (c9)

[4] [36] [53]

How actors organize, understand, discuss, ask questions and exchange information within a common language to facilitate the ability to gain access to other actors and information.

Shared Narratives (c10)


All those stories and metaphors that support persuasive arguments and conclusive proof of good ideas and its exchange and sharing.

Actor’s Involvement (D)

Consumer Engagement(d11)

[35] [59] [60] [61]

Involvement of the consumer by virtue of task-related and personal interaction with network actors. Transactional and non-transactional behavior exhibited when consumers are in interaction with a brand, organization and/or co-created customer experience with other stakeholders

Value Creation Activity (E)

[62] [63]

The value generating object or subject through interactions as individuals use their social ties as a mechanism to exchange product/service related information.