Grade I

Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiological interventions.

Allowed therapeutic regimens are: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgetics, diuretics and electrolytes and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.

Grade II

Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than such allowed for Grade I complications.

Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included.

Grade III

Requiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention.


Intervention not under general anesthesia.


Intervention under general anesthesia.

Grade IV

Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications) requiring IC/ICU-management.


Single organ dysfunction (including dialysis).


Multi organ dysfunction.

Grade V

Death of a patient.

Suffix “d”

If the patient suffers from a complication at the time of discharge, the suffix “d” (for “disability”) is added to the respective grade of complication. This label indicates the need for a follow-up to fully evaluate the complication.