Information sources

Empirical findings


Reputation (is the result of past actions and shapes our anticipation of behavior [13] [90] (16 articles)

To have a good reputation

Jean and Tan, 2001; Kelly and Hay, 2003; Welter and Kautonen, 2005; Howorth and Moro, 2006; Holt and Macpherson, 2010; Schwarzkopf et al., 2010; Sengupta, 2011; Discua et al., 2013; Howorth and Moro, 2012; Sigfusson and Harris, 2012

To be subject to formal mechanism by going public (initial public offer)

Ravasi and Marchisio, 2003 [91]

To develop a tie with institutions that possess high status

Scarbrough et al., 2013

To receive support from the public sector

· Actors (public sector) believed in the project

Curtis et al., 2010

To get public funding

· Small amounts of money are provided, but these small amounts are important because it proves somebody trusted her.

Curtis et al., 2010

To display reputation of her customer/supplier

Welter et al., 2004

To use country brand

· She mentions that have utilized the country brand to create positive associations with trustworthiness

Lehto, 2015

To show the image of the profession

Welter and Kautonen, 2005

To demonstrate standards set by professional associations

Welter and Kautonen, 2005

To get external validation

Lopes et al., 2009

· To verify her credentials by other ties (e.g., due diligence on a management team or company, verification of specific competencies by involving another expert with domain knowledge)

Scarbrough et al., 2013

Third parties (information that is proved by a person who know the entrepreneur) (10 articles)

Gossip about her

Bowey and Easton, 2007

· One can access stories about her trustworthiness through third parties

Howorth and Moro, 2006

Introduction and endorsement by third party

· Informal third parties (in social networks) can endorse the relationship and signal similar values and beliefs

· To convert strangers into friends through common thirds parties to bridge

Nguyen and Rose, 2009

· Venture Capitals acquired information from third parties, either whom they (venture capital) knew or from her reputation in a relatively small community

Schwarzkopf et al., 2010

· Introductions from other trusted (strong) ties in an actor’s network (e.g., referrals from friends and family)

Scarbrough et al., 2013

Recommendations developed by other people who know her

Welter et al., 2004

· To make the approach through a referral source that knows her and whose opinions and judgments are trusted by business angels

Kelly and Hay, 2003

· I (bank manager) had heard and gain information about her from other customer

· I (bank manager) gain information about your client (she) from other customers

Howorth and Moro, 2012

· Good, relevant references, and word-of-mouth recommendations

Holt and Macpherson, 2010; Lehto, 2015