Rhee and White, 2007; Altinay et al., 2014


Amatucci and Sohl, 2004; Altinay et al., 2014


Altinay et al., 2014

· To share values

Howorth and Moro, 2006; Weber and Weber, 2011; Maxwell and Lévesque, 2014

To have similar attitude to work

Discua et al., 2013

· To possess geographic tiles (tiles related to natural or man-made features that can shape identities including locale, region, or country)

To share nationality

Phillips et al., 2013 [83]

To have localization and community embeddedness

To share be minority in a foreign country, the distinctiveness of her country of origin from the host country acted as a point of co-identification

To be from a similar region or country with similar traditions and history allowed stronger emotional ties in business transactions

Altinay et al., 2014

· To pursue common objectives, goals and interests

Howorth and Moro, 2006; Presutti et al., 2011; Schwarzkopf et al., 2010; Bergh et al., 2011; Weber and Weber, 2011;

Discua et al., 2013; Scarbrough et al., 2013; Maxwell and Lévesque, 2014

· To hold the same expectations

If you (actor) get to the point where you and she have a shared vision about how the future could roll out, then you’ve got a couple of options …

Scarbrough et al., 2013

Value congruence (the compatibility of an actor’s beliefs and values with the entrepreneur’s cultural values)

· To share cognitive attributes, being it an individual’s system of meaning, attitudes, beliefs and identity

Common attitudes

Common beliefs

Common knowledge

Howorth and Moro, 2006; Jonsson, 2015

Common value

Howorth and Moro, 2006; Schwarzkopf et al., 2010; Jonsson 2015

· To get congruence of values between actors and her

Howorth and Moro, 2006; Bowey and Easton, 2007

· To inform about cognitive aspects (e.g. values)

Sigfusson and Harris, 2012

· To share norm

Weber and Weber 2011

· To meet principle compatibility

Bergh et al., 2011

· To show homophily through similar characteristics

Gordon and Jack, 2010; Bowey and Easton, 2007

To display personal affinity

Jack et al., 2008

To have common backgrounds

Schwarzkopf et al., 2010

To have social similarities

Bergh et al., 2011

To show good gut feeling a positive first impression-emotional connectivity

There are people (she) to whom you (venture capital) can connect; there’s common ground

Weber and Weber, 2011

· To display homophily through similar experience