SI No.


Phases of research



Construct validity or dependability (identification of correct operational measures for the concepts studied)

Data collection

1) Data triangulation: multiple source of evidences, i.e. NGTs method for personal interviews.

2) Plurality: multiple NGTs and multiple personal interviews.

3) Methodological triangulation: comparing transcribed data with audio recorded data.


Internal validity (seeking to establish causal relationship)

Data analysis

1) Pattern matching: having constant comparison among NGT information and personal discussion information

2) Explanation building: constructing an initial theoretical statement, revisiting the theoretical statement and comparing the other details. Repeating the process until no further change was possible with the given information.


Reliability (dependability)

Research design

Deriving theoretical statement and structural framework from first round of NGTs and personal interviews, and testing the theoretical statement and the structural framework in the second round of NGTs