Variable Variable description Code Sex Single-item variable indicating the sex of the teacher. 1 = Male, 2 = Female School type Single-item variable indicating the type of school 1 = Public, 2 = Private, 3 = Ebtedayee Madrasha Needed homework time Single-item variable indicating time students should spend for homework in hour. Variable (continuous) ranged from 2 to 8 hours. Teacher’s belief Composite variable based on how much the teacher agrees with the following statements: 1) All in all, I am satisfied with my job, 2) I feel I am making an important academic contribution to the lives of my students, 3) I try hard to make the progress of the students who are most disobedient and disinterested in, 4) I’m successful to teach the students in the classroom, 5) I know how to get through to the students and 6) In the local community, teachers are well respected. Initial code (five-point Likert Scale): 1 = disagree a lot, 2 = disagree a little, 3 = medium, 4 = agree a little, 5 = agree a lot Recode for composite variable: 1 = Low teacher’s belief, if average point ≤ 2, 2 = Medium teacher’s belief, if 2 < average point < 4 and 3 = High teacher’s belief, if average point ≥ 4. The academic atmosphere at school (perceived by the teacher) Composite variable based on how much does the student agree with the following statements: 1) Teachers are satisfied, 2) Teachers understand the school’s curricular goals, 3) Teachers are successful in implementing the school’s curriculum, 4) Teachers make the students achieve a good result, 5) Parents support their child to achieve a good result, 6) Parents involved in school activities, 7) Students take care of their school property, 8) Students are more conscious about their good results at school and 9) How the entire academic atmosphere of the school is. Initial code (five-point Likert Scale): 1 = very bad, 2 = bad, 3 = medium, 4 = good, 5 = very good Recode for composite variable: 1 = Low academic atmosphere at school if average point ≤ 2, 2 = Med. academic atmosphere at school, if 2 < average point < 4 3 = High academic atmosphere at school if average point ≥ 4. School locality Single-item indicator pointing the school locality 1 = Urban, 2 = Sub-urban, 3 = Rural