Morpholexicon-based changes

Morphology- based

Inflectional changes

(a) It was with difficulty that the course of streets could be followed

(b) You couldn’t even follow the path of the street

Modal-verb changes

(a) I [...] was still lost in conjectures who they might be

(b) I was pondering who they could be

Derivational changes

(a) I have heard many accounts of him [...] all differing from each other

(b) I have heard many different things about him


Spelling changes

(a) The foodservice pie business doesn’t fit the company’s long-term growth strategy

(b) The foodservice pie business does not fit our long-term growth strategy

Same-polarity substitutions

(a) A teaspoonful of vanilla

(b) Very little vanilla

Synthetic/analytic substitutions

(a) A sequence of ideas

(b) Ideas

Opposite-polarity substitutions

(a) Leicester [...] failed in both enterprises

(b) He did not succeed in either case

Converse substitutions

(a) The Geological Society of London in 1855 awarded to him the Wollaston medal

(b) Resulted in him receiving the Wollaston medal from the Geological Society in London in 1855

Structure-based changes


Diathesis alternations

(a) The guide drew our attention to a gloomy little dungeon

(b) Ou[r] attention was drawn by our guide to a little dungeon

Negation switching

(a) In order to move us, it needs no reference to any recognized original

(b) One does not need to recognize a tangible object to be moved by its artistic representation


(a) In the scenes with Iago he equaled Salvini, yet did not in any one point surpass him

(b) He equaled Salvini, in the scenes with Iago, but he did not in any point surpass him or imitate him

Coordination changes

(a) It is estimated that he spent nearly $10,000 on these works. In addition he published a large number of separate papers

(b) Altogether these works cost him almost $10,000 and he wrote a lot of small papers as well